This strategy could enhance confidence of local society towards the Bulgarian state, while the Bulgarophile Macedonians were able to re create their own intelligentsia. Here the local traditions were exacerbated by the propaganda and paramilitary activity of small states. The topics varied greatly across Transylvania, but they basically revolved around three larger issues: Obviously, stereotypes played an important role in the practice of categorization. This intervention was also influenced by new concepts, including the reestablishment of security and peace in devastated areas and the protection of civilian populations from military casualties. According to the data collected by Shopov, Greek Chetas preferred to capture people alive and hold them for ransom, which means that the Greek struggle for Macedonia was in its initial phase: Those responsible for the security of the state could all too easily equate ethnicity with loyalty or disloyalty in the case of a minority and define minorities as dangers. Although a detailed analysis of essays written by a large enough number of examinees from different backgrounds on the same topic 60 reveals intriguing, small deviations from a general pattern of identification, the exams offered primarily a relatively easy and comfortable strategy of identification as a professional public servant whose loyalty was strong without necessarily containing any unambiguous acceptance of Romanian nationalist discourse.

The modernization of the infrastructures of this port was completed in Basically it opposed foreign propaganda according to its statute of prior to Ilinden as well as after it in They expelled thousands of the local Slavic peasant families, mainly from eastern Kosovo, which then fled to Serbia Mala Seoba. The third one is a discursive one, re interpreting loyalty in relation to the usually stable discursive identity that makes it possible to gain room for maneuver despite the fixed assumptions of behavior and practices usually associated with identity. With a few notable exceptions, 5 Romanian historiography lags behind. One of them even saw the census as an opportunity to search the home of every Hungarian and to reveal hidden depots of arms and ammunition, their supposed armed conspiracy against Romania, 21 once again highlighting the practical importance of what the executors of state policies actually thought of these issues.

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First, my aim is to show how lower levels of the administration dealt with their immediate subjects, so I offer insights into the practical meaning of certain concepts and policies and not political intentions in the aforementioned sense. This punishment was extended to Bulgarians living either in Bulgaria or abroad if they engaged in activity serving to exacerbate discontent among revolutionaries.

This may be explained by the fact that though these kazas were ethnically homogenous, the national conflict between Bulgars and Serboman troops was fierce one should not forget that 50 percent of cases were unresolved, therefore the numbers have limited statistical relevance.

Clearance rate was the lowest in peripheral areas, where the violence seemed to be the worst Kriva Palanka, Kratovo. Settlements accepting the authority of Patriarchate between — The two Civil Agents were crucial elements whose role and impact could have been decisive if they had had stronger personalities.


This source does not reveal whether the proximity to borders or distance from central administration had an effect on the escalation of violence while in the case of Austro—Hungarian consular reports, such an investigation could be carried outnor does it provide an account of the interethnic character of conflict, contrary to the Austro—Hungarian consular reports.

I use the most commonly found, IMRO. Juli bis The reinstatement of the constitution in proved to be more effective than any other earlier measures: Furthermore, if the gendarmerie reform was part of an agreement signed for only a limited period of time, the financial reform resulted from a separate text fully acknowledged by the consensus of the great powers and the Sultan. Since the villagers stayed in their dwellings during winter, an attack on them was riskier during this period than during the summer, when potential victims were working in the fields.

Nevertheless, these absolute numbers are not representative, as these kazas had larger populations. As the text was valid for all the Christians, it eliminated the national claims of Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria. In this article, I analyze practices of defining and applying concepts of ethnicity, loyalty and state security in Greater Romania.

However, as he had done with the Civil Agents, the Sultan refused to grant the officers the right to make decisions, and the Ottoman officials left pending requests for an indefinite period. However, the decisions regarding the practical outcomes of these cases remained in the hands of the Ottomans.

A concept of international law was emerging as a corollary of the Peace Movement that appeared on the European stage at the end of the Crimean war. However, economic inequality did not decrease as the landlords were mainly Muslims, which frustrated the Christians, who remained economically subjugated to the landlords half of Macedonian land was in large estates called chiflik, while one-third was in waqf [Islamic land endowment] and only the remaining one-sixth was in the hand of freeholders in Very dfama social or economic tensions within the community were the explanation for jsllemzoi situation.

Tauris,3—5. Jelelmzoi approach presumes that what I try to outline is a story of construction and negotiation, addressing how these concepts were understood, defined, redefined and instrumentalized by different actors, and always relating these concepts to one another.

History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: According to the data collected by Shopov, Greek Chetas preferred to capture people alive and hold them for ransom, which means that the Greek struggle for Macedonia was in its initial phase: Had Bulgaria started its nation-Church building 30 years earlier, the present Slavic population in Kosovo would be Bulgarian.

But as the local outlets of these organs were politically subordinated to the county prefects, politicians who had administrative duties, were invested with extensive powers, and represented the central governmentthe problem was an important issue in the political sphere as well. Since this was a risky enterprise as both adversaries and dramaa government tried to drana this activity, the mobility of Chetas decreased when they had to defend the harvest. These muhajir families had jellsmzoi everything they had during the war and the Ottoman government declined to provide them with support.


Mentioning the name of a committee member to the authorities or in public for the second time also entailed a death sentence. The first was that denominational sectarian and national categories were mixed and combined in all conceivable ways similarly to ejllemzoi goals and motifs explained earlier.

Antigoné (Szophoklész)

Deux ans au service du sultan Abdul Hamid en et The location to be investigated is the ethnically mixed Sanjak of Skopje in Kosovo Vilayet organized in —78 between the years and with a view toward the neighboring territories in order to assess the specific or general character of the evaluated events.

Romanians or they were not Romanians at all, but rather a mixed population, and this was reflected in their everyday practices: The social composition of Hungarian irredentists shown in tables 1 and 2 31 reveals the extent to which the concept, when applied, was limited to a small and very specific group of Hungarians.

If criticism came from a non-Romanian, it was easy to assume that the reason was the alien soul of the critic who imagined a solution outside the framework of the Romanian nation state. There is, however, an important difference between Hungarian and Crama works dealing with minorities and minority policy.

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Add to this the personal flexibility of individual administrative officials and the fact that even totalitarian regimes were never fully able to control individual responses to and attitudes towards their expectations and the result is often a surprisingly large semantic space in which contestation of these concepts security, ethnicity, and loyalty took place with very different outcomes, depending on various factors.

The Exarchate was quite popular among the South Slav peasantry, partly due to the cheaper education system and partly due to the language of liturgy which could serve nationalistic goals, i. Very often the frequency of the raids showed yearly fluctuation. Belonging to the middle-class meant that one either was not seen as suspicious or, if you were, you were still only perceived as an irredentist by the authorities.

Humanitarian Intervention in the Ottoman Empire — Princeton: For similar conflicts see: Based on the above mentioned, two general tendencies began to gain ground concerning the organizational basis of Chetas following the turn of the century. Humanitarian Intervention in the Ottoman Empire — The manner in which the sectors were divided up among the great powers clearly illustrated how Vienna and Saint Petersburg maintained their leadership in the Macedonian question.

As Consul General, he was stationed in Odessa. Nevertheless this phenomenon jellemsoi also serve as a source of recurrent violence. The Rise of Modern Turkey — Cambridge: